Saturday, April 5, 2008

Terms of Networking

This is by no means a comprehensive list of the terms you should be familiar with before you begin to seriously study the Windows 2000 Professional operating system, but ensure that you at least know the basic meanings of the following:
  1. Application A program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or for another application program. For example, word processors, database programs, graphics/drawing programs, Web browsers, e-mail programs.
  2. Audit The process of tracking network activity.
  3. Boot The process of loading an operating system into the computer's memory (RAM) so that applications can be run on it.
  4. Client A computer or program that accesses the resources of another computer or program across the network.
  5. Device A computer subsystem. For example, disk drives, printers, ports.
  6. Driver Software that allows the operating system to communicate with a device.
  7. Encryption Scrambling of data to make it unreadable so an unauthorized person cannot decipher it.
  8. Group An account that contains other accounts (called group members).
  9. IRQ (Interrupt Request) An electronic signal that is sent to the computer's processor requiring the processor's attention.
  10. LAN Local area network, a network that is confined to a limited geographic area.
    Modem A communication device that modulates and demodulates a signal, converting it from digital to analog for transfer over telephone lines, and back again.
  11. Network Two or more computers connected together by cable or wireless media for the purpose of sharing data, hardware peripherals, and other resources.
  12. Object A named set of attributes that represent a resource.
  13. Paging file A file on the hard disk (or spanning multiple disks) that stores some of the program code that is normally in the computer's RAM. This is called virtual memory, and allows the programs to function as if the computer had more memory than is physically installed.
  14. Plug and Play The ability of the computer operating system to detect and automatically configure devices.
  15. Printer The software interface between the operating system and a print device.
  16. Print device The physical hardware component that produces printed documents.
  17. Protocol A set of rules and procedures used by computers and computer components to communicate with one another.
  18. RAID Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks
    Resource A part of a computer system that can be shared.
  19. Server A computer that shares its resources with other computers on the network.
    Share A resource that can be accessed by other computers on the network.
  20. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the protocol stack of the Internet, and the default network transport protocol of Windows 2000.
    Trust relationship A connection between domains in which users who have accounts in and log on to one domain can then access resources in other domains, provided they have proper access permissions.
  21. User account The information that defines a particular user on a network, which includes the username, password, group memberships, and rights and permissions assigned to the user.